Citizenship rights are a set of rights that address human being as a member of a society. Since there are many communities in the world that have their own culture, believes and traditions, citizenship rights vary from one state to another. Citizenship rights have an impartible link with human rights. For this reason some consider these rights as a part of human rights that are recognized by domestic legislation.
The rationale behind citizenship rights is that individuals could participate in society affairs and elements of this participation should be legalized and guaranteed by laws and regulations. The concept of citizenship rights has been recognized in Islamic-Iranian culture. The social establishment “Amr be Maaroof va Nah y az Monkar” has the function of protecting particular norms and values of Islamic society.
In addition, the religious and legal concept of “Hagh o Nas” or the right of people is a well-established principle in Islam that is regarded as important as “Hagh o Allah”, that is the right of God.
Human rights are the collection of rights that belong to humanity. These rights are shaped around human dignity. In this sense, everyone is entitled human rights because s/he is a human being. Such rights are universal and address humans wherever they are.
The concept of human rights has been expressed in three different discourses. The first one that refers to the origin of such rights is the human dignity, respect and prestige. This is the theoretical framework of human rights. The second discourse focuses on rule and legal obligation and it is called legal discourse of human rights. Here, for the conceptual norms to be obligatory, it is necessary that they are classified in one of the sources of international law. The third discourse which called political-executive discourse concerns the implementation of human rights obligations where it may overlap the states’ policies.
Human rights are rooted in culture and religion. One of the approaches in conceptual discourse of human right is the Islamic human rights approach that emphasizes on the sole nature of human being. This approach has been expressed in the Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights (1990). The practice of Islamic states in signing and/or ratifying international human rights-related documents with reservations shows the political and executive discourse of human rights.
Human rights do not belong to a particular culture or are not the product of the western thoughts. Every culture around the world has their own share in the creation of such rights. What makes different positions and approaches in this regard is diverse interpretations of these rights in the world’s schools of thoughts.